1000: Olaf I, the King of Norway, dies.
1001: Eric the Red, the founder of the first European colony on Greenland, dies. Steven I of Hungary is crowned king. Brian Boru is acknowledged as chief king of Ireland.
1002: Hrosvitha, a German poet and chronicler dies. Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany dies, and his cousin Henry II (called Henry the Saint) is elected to succeed him. Massacre of the Danes, in England. Sweyn I, King of Denmark and called Forkbeard, starts leading a series of raids against England.
1003: Boleslav I (called the Brave) of Poland becomes prince of Bohemia. Robert II of France (the Pious) submits to the Pope and marries the daughter of the marquis of Provence, Constance of Arles.
1004: Henry II of The Holy Roman Empire (called Henry the Saint) invades Italy in and crowned king of the Lombards. Between 1004 and 1018 he also is at war with Boleslav I, king of Poland, over Bohemia.
1005: Kenneth III of Scotland (called "The Grim") dies. His cousin Malcome II of Scotland becomes king.
1009: Danish invasion of England. Al-Hakim, the caliph of Egypt, Syria and Palestine orders the Jews and Christians in his kingdom to wear sashes around their waste and wear distinguishing badges on their clothing. He also orders the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem to be destroyed.
1013: Sweyn I, King of Denmark (called Forkbeard) leads an invasion into England. Al-Hakim, the caliph of Egypt, Syria and Palestine orders that Jews must wear bells around their neck when they enter public baths.
1014: The Irish beat the Vikings in the Battle of Clontarf. English king Ethelred II flees England to Normandy. Sweyn I, King of Denmark becomes ruler of England (and dies the same year). Henry II of The Holy Roman Empire (called Henry the Saint) goes to Rome where he is crowned Emperor. Bulgarian czar Samuel is defeated by Byzantine Emperor Basil II.
1016: Death of Ethelred II of England leads to the Battle of Ashington to choose a successor. Canute the Great wins becoming king of England.
1017: Canute, king of England, marries Emma of Normandy.
1018: Canute the Great inherits the throne of Denmark, but continues to reside in England.
1021: By request of Pope Benedict VIII Henry II of The Holy Roman Empire (called Henry the Saint) goes to Italy to fight the Byzantines. Al-Hakim, the caliph of Egypt, Syria and Palestine mysteriously disappears.
1024: Henry II of The Holy Roman Empire (called Henry the Saint) dies and is succeeded by Conrad II. In April someone is arrested and commits suicide for the murder of Al-Hakim, the caliph of Egypt, Syria and Palestine.
1025: Byzantine Emperor Basil II dies.
1026: Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned king of the Lombards
1027: Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned Emperor by the pope.
1028: Olaf II of Norway is forced into exile by Canute the Great. Canute becomes King of Norway.
1030: Olaf II of Norway attempts to reclaim his lost kingdom, but is defeated.
1031: Henry I of France crowned.
1032: Rudolf III king of Burgundy dies and Burgundy is added to the Holy Roman Empire.
1034: Malcolm II of Scotland dies, and his grandson Duncan I becomes king.
1035: Robert I, duke of Normandy and father of William the Conqueror dies. Canute, king of England, Denmark and Norway, dies. His illegitimate son Harold I becomes regent in England. Magnus the Good, son of Olaf II, becomes king of Norway.
1037: Avicenna, a Persian scholar who wrote the Canon of Medicine dies.
1039: Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire dies trying to suppress a rebellion in Italy. His son Henry III (called The Black) of the Holy Roman Empire inherits the title. Alhazen of Cario, a physicist who had challenged the idea that the eye sees by sending out visual rays, dies.
1040: Macbeth becomes king of Scotland, defeating King Duncan I in battle. Harold I of England dies, and Cnut's legitimate son Harthacnut inherits.
1041: Henry III (called The Black) of the Holy Roman Empire defends the Poles (his vassals) against the Bohemians.
1042: Harthacnut dies, and Edward the Confessor becomes king of England.
1045: Edward the Confessor marries Edith, the daughter of the Earl of Wessex.
1047: William the Conqueror secures the throne of Normandy with the help of King Henry I of France. Magnus the Good, king of Norway and Denmark dies, and is succeeded in Norway by his uncle Harald Hardrade.
1049: Saint Leo IX becomes pope, through the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, to whom he is related.
1051: William the Conqueror obtains Edward the Confessor's (King of England) agreement that William will inherit the throne of England from Edward.
1053: William the Conqueror married Matilda of Flanders, a descendant to Alfred the Great.
1054: Henry I of France tries to crush William the Conqueror, and fails.
1055: A Turkish group called the Seljuks capture Baghdad.
1056: Six year old Henry IV inherits the Holy Roman Empire. (during his minority his mother ruled for him)
1057: Macbeth, the king of Scotland, is killed. Macbeth's stepson, Lulach becomes king.
1058: Henry I of France tries again to crush William the Conqueror, and again fails. Scottish king Lulach is ambushed and killed by Malcolm III of Scotland, son of Duncan I. Malcolm III of Scotland becomes king.
1060: Henry I of France dies, and is succeeded by his son (eight year old) Philip I of France.
1064: Harold, Earl of Wessex and a powerful English noble is shipwrecked and taken prisoner by William the Conqueror. He obtains release by promising to aid William in his claim to the English throne.
1065: Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire comes of age, and crushes a rebellion in Saxony.
1066: Edward the Confessor, King of England, dies. Harold the Earl of Wessex is elected king. With the sanction of Pope Alexander II William the Conqueror (also called William the Bastard) invades England and wins the Battle of Hastings, where Harold is killed. William the Conqueror is crowned on Christmas day. Philip I of France takes over ruling from his mother and uncle.
1070: The Norman conquest of England is now complete.
1072: William the Conqueror invades Scotland and forces Malcolm III MacDuncan to pay homage to him.
1076: Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire convokes a Germany council to dispose of Pope Gregory VII. The Pope excommunicates Henry IV and he is forced to beg for absolution. When the German nobles Rudolf the duke of Swabia for king Germany was thrown into a civil war.
1080: Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire and proclaims Rudolf king. Henry IV declares Clement III Pope. Rudolf is killed and Henry IV retakes control.
1084: Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire invades Italy and captures Rome. the Normans, led by Robert Guiscard drive Henry IV from Rome.
1086: William the Conqueror has all landlords swear an oath (the Oath of Salisbury) to him, promising loyalty. A survey is taken (by William) and the Domesday Book is written. She-tsung, Emperor of China, nationalizes agricultural production and distribution.
1087: William the Conqueror dies on a campaign against King Philip I of France. William II of England (called Rufus, the third son of William the Conqueror) is crowned.
1088: Odo, the bishop of Bayeux leads a revolt of Normans against William II of England, trying to replace him with his older brother Robert II duke of Normandy. Urban II elected pope.
1089: William II of England invades Normandy.
1091: William II of England invades Normandy (again).
1093: Malcolm III of Scotland dies in battle. His wife, Margaret (niece of Edward the Confessor) dies three days later. His brother Donald III (called Donald Bane) declares himself king.
1094: William II of England invades Normandy (again). Duncan II, son of Malcolm III of Scotland defeats Donald III of Scotland and becomes king. Soon after he is killed in a revolt and Donald III becomes king again.
1095: Philip I of France is excommunicated for repudiating his wife, Bertha of Holland and marrying Bertranda, wife of the count of Anjou. Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade. (First Crusade goes from 1095 - 1099)
1096: Robert II duke of Normandy mortgages Normandy to William II of England in exchange for money to finance a crusade.
1097: Edgar of Scotland, son of Malcolm III of Scotland defeats, blinds, and imprisons Donald III of Scotland. Edgar becomes king of Scotland.
1099: Pope Urban II dies just prior to the fall of the Holy City, Jerusalem, to the First Crusaders...he never lives to see his vision realized. Pope Paschal II comes into office.