1100: William II of England dies while hunting. His younger brother succeeds as Henry I of England, winning support of the nobles and church by issuing a charter of liberties acknowledging their rights.
1101: Robert II duke of Normandy invades England, but retreats when Henry I of England promises him a pension and military aid.
1102: Henry I of England quells a revolt of nobles, who then flee to Normandy.
1104: Alfonso I becomes king of Aragon and Navarre.
1105: Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire is taken prisoner by his son and forced to abdicate.
1106: Henry I of England defeats Robert II of Normandy in France, and he wins Normandy. Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire dies while trying to reform an army. Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire (son of Henry IV) becomes Emperor. Lothiar (soon to be Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire) is granted the duchy of Saxony by Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire.
1107: Alexander I (called the Fierce) of Scotland becomes king when his brother Edgar of Scotland dies unmarried.
1108: Louis VI (of France) is crowned.
1109: Louis VI (of France) starts fighting the English (for the next twenty years)
1110: Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire agrees to abide by Pope Paschal II's degrees, in return that he would be crowned. When, at the day of the coronation Henry V places more demands the Pope refuses, and Henry V takes him prisoner. The Pope agrees with his demands.
1112: The Pope Paschal II retracts the concessions he made to Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire.
1114: Many German princes rebel against Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire (1114 - 1121)
1115: Matilda countess of Tuscany dies leaving a lot of territory to the papacy. Conrad (later Conrad III of Germany) is given duchy of Franconia by his uncle Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire.
1116: Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire invades Italy to seize the territories left to the papacy by Matilda. Conrad (later to be Conrad III of Germany) is made one of the regents of Germany.
1117: Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire has Pope Paschal II driven out of Rome.
1118: Pope Paschal II dies, and is succeeded by Gelasius II. Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire establishes Gregory VIII as the antipope. Gelasius II excommunicates Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire. Anna Comnena, a Byzantine princess and historian, retires to a convent after unsuccessfully conspiring to make her husband emperor instead of her brother, Emperor John II Comnenus.
1121: Diet of Würzburg establishes peace between Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire and his German enemies.
1122: The Concordat of Worms establishes peace with the Catholic Church. Antipope Gregory VIII is abandoned.
1123: Omar Khayyám, a mathematician whose worked on cubic equations, dies.
1124: Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire and his father-in-law Henry I of England unsuccessfully attack Louis VI of France. David I of Scotland (called The Saint) becomes king of Scotland after his brother Alexander I dies childless. During his reign he strengthened the church and encouraged Normans to settle in Scotland.
1125: Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire dies. He is succeeded by Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire. Conrad (soon to be Conrad III of Germany) and his brother Frederick II, duke of Swabia dispute Lothair II's succession to the throne of Germany. In China, student Chen Dong (Ch'en Tung) begins petitioning the government.
1126: In China Chen Dong leads a student protest to the dismissal of Li Gang. Over 100,000 men join with the students in the protest, and several eunuchs are killed when the crowd rioted. Li Gang was reinstalled as defense commissioner by Emperor Qin Zong (aka Ch'in-Tsung) and the government attempts to bribe student leaders to end the protests.
1127: Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire arranges the marriage of his daughter Gertrude to Henry X, duke of Bavaria. Conrad (soon to be Conrad III of Germany) is elected king or anti-king of Germany, and a war breaks out between him and his rival, Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire. Chinese Emperor Gao Zong (son of Qin Zong) has Chen Dong executed.
1128: Conrad (soon to be Conrad III of Germany) is crowned king of Italy.
1129: Chinese Emperor Gao Zong expresses regret over killing Chen Dong and posthumously grants Chen Dong an official rank.
1133: Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned by Pope Innocence II. Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre is defeated by the Moors at Braga.
1134: Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre dies of wounds he had received the previous year.
1135: Henry I of England dies. Henry's nephew Steven of Blois usurps the throne. Conrad (soon to be Conrad III of Germany) acknowledges Lothair II as the Holy Roman Emperor.
1136: King David I of Scotland attacks England either to help his niece Matilda get the English throne, or to recapture three countries on the Northern border of England, or both. (1136 - 1138)
1137: Louis VII of France succeeds his father, and marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire gives Henry X, duke of Bavaria the duchy of Saxony. Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire dies, and Conrad III of Germany succeeds him as king of Germany.
1139: Ten year old Henry the Lion inherits the duchy of Saxony, which his mother and grandmother rule for him.
1142: Louis VII of France captures Champagne. Malcolm IV, (called "the Maiden"), grandson of David I inherits the throne of Scotland.
1146: Henry the Lion begins to rule the duchy of Saxony for himself.
1147: The Second Crusade begins...Lisbon falls to the crusaders and Portuguese; Almeria falls to the Spanish. Henry the Lion demands the duchy of Bavaria be given to him, when refused, he fights against Conrad III of Germany.
1148: King Louis VII of France, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Emperor Conrad III in the East join the Second Crusade
1149: The Second Crusade ends in failure. King Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany return from the crusade.
1151: Henry (soon to be Henry II of England) becomes the duke of Normandy.
1152: Eleanor of Aquitaine's marriage to Louis VII is annulled. She marries Henry II. Louis VII and Henry II fight over her lands in Aquitaine. Conrad III of Germany dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Frederick I (called Frederick Barbarossa)
1153: the newly appointed papal chancellor (later to be Pope Alexander III) is sent to negotiate the Treaty of Constance with Emperor Frederick I (called Frederick Barbarossa)
1154: Louis VII of France renounces all claims to the duchy of Aquitaine. Henry II, first of the Plantagenet monarchs of England, defeats Steven of Blois and becomes King of England.
1155: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire, (called Frederick Barbarossa) is crowned emperor by Pope Adrian IV.
1156: in a letter Pope Adrian IV angers Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) by implying that the Emperor held his lands only as a fief from the pope. Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Bararossa) gives Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, the duchy of Bavaria. In return, Henry the Lion helps his wars against Poland and Italy during the next three years. Civil war breaks out in Japan, between two rival emperors.
1157: Louis VII of France continues fighting Henry II of England (sporadically, for the next three years). Eric of Sweden conquers Finland.
1158: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) angers the Lombards by demanding that he be allowed to appoint the governor in each town. (struggles continue till 1158). Fredrick I also goes to war with Milan.
1159: Pope Adrain IV dies. Alexander III becomes Pope.
1160: After another civil war the Taira clan takes over control of Japan from the Fujiwara.
1164: Henry II argues with the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas a' Becket, and attempts to decree that priest accused of crimes should be charged by royal courts.
1165: William I of Scotland, (called the Lion), and brother of Malcolm IV inherits the throne of Scotland. Pope Alexander III excommunicates Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire.
1167: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) attacks Rome, setting anti-pope Paschal III on the papal throne. The Lombard league forms, with Pope Alexander III as their leader. Oxford University is founded. Taira leader, Kiyomori, is named prime minister of Japan.
1168: After quarreling with Henry II of England William the Lion of Scotland makes an alliance with France. Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, marries Henry II of England's daughter Matilda (as his second wife).
1170: Thomas a' Becket is murdered by four of Henry II's knights. Henry II is forced to recognize Thomas a' Becket as a martyr and give up his attempt to make priests subject to the courts.
1171: Henry II of England begins the Norman conquest of Ireland.
1172: Richard (the soon-to-be king of England, and oldest son of Henry II) inherits the duchy of Aquitaine in France, from his mother. Henry the Lion takes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
1173: Eleanor of Aquitaine, and her sons start leading rebellions against Henry II, (her husband and their father). They are supported by the French and Scottish Kings. Eleanor is caught and imprisoned. William the Lion of Scotland invades Northumberland.
1174: William the Lion of Scotland is captured by the English and released only when he agrees to the Treaty of Falaise promising to recognize Henry II of England as overlord. On his fifth expedition to Italy Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) is defeated by the Lombard league. Henry the Lion (duke of Bavaria and Saxony) refused to help Frederick I, thus angering him.
1177: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) is forced to acknowledge Alexander III as pope.
1179: Philip Augustus (soon to be Philip II of France) becomes co-regent with his father Louis VII.
1180: Philip Augustus becomes ruler of France, Philip II. Henry the Lion is robbed of most of his possessions by Frederick I (a result of their fight in 1174). the Minamoto leader leads an uprising in eastern Japan, against the Taira, forcing the Taira from their capital.
1181: Philip II of France fights with various French barons to increase his domain (1181-1186). Pope Alexander III dies and is succeeded by Pope Lucius III.
1182: Henry the Lion is exiled by Frederick I. All Jews are banished from France.
1183: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) is forced to sign the Peace of Constance. Henry II's heir, Henry, is killed, and Richard the Lion-hearted becomes the next in line for the throne.
1185: Pope Lucius III is succeeded by Pope Urban III. Pope Urban III's enemies prevent him from entering Rome, so he remains in Verona instead. Eleanor of Aquitaine is released from her confinement, and manages to secure the succession of her son Richard to the throne of England. Civil war in Japan ends with the Taira leader, Yoritomo inaugurating a military dictatorship. The Japanese capital is moved to Kamakura
1186: Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire's son Henry (later to be Emperor Henry VI) invades the papal states.
1187: Pope Urban III dies on his way to Venice.
1188: William the Lion of Scotland receives a papal bull promising the independence of the Scottish church from the English ones.
1189: Henry II of England dies. Richard I of England (called the Lion-hearted)crowned king. Through a deal with the Scottish king William he receives 10,000 Marks which he takes to the Holy Lands, leaving his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine as regent. The Treaty of Falaise (between Scotland and England) is annulled. Henry the Lion is again excelled by Frederick I. Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire (called Frederick Barbarossa) initiates the Third Crusade, handing the Holy Roman Empire to his son, Henry (later Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire).
1190: Richard the Lion-hearted and Philip II of France leave for the Third Crusade. the two kings quarrel regularly. Henry (later Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire) squashes a rebellion of nobles led by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire drowns, in a river in Cilicia.
1191: Philip II of France leaves the crusades and returns to France. Richard the Lion-hearted captures Cyprus. . Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned.
1192: Richard the Lion-hearted is captured by Leopold V, duke of Austria and handed over to Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire. In Japan Taira leader, Yoritomo is appointed Shogun.
1193: John Lackland attempts to claim the throne of England, but is prevented by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1194: Richard the Lion-hearted is released for ransom. Richard returns to England and makes peace with his brother John. Leaving the government in the hands of Hubert Walter, the archbishop he leaves to go to war with France. Tancred, king of Italy dies, and Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire invades Italy and is crowned king.
1195: Henry the Lion dies. Philip (later Holy Roman Emperor Philip) becomes the duke of Tuscany.
1196: Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire tries unsuccessfully to make the imperial crown hereditary. Philip (later Holy Roman Emperor Philip) becomes the duke of Swabia.
1197: Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire dies.
1198: Philip, duke of Tuscany and Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick fight over who will rule as Holy Roman Empire. Averroes, an Islamic philosopher and personal doctor of the caliph, dies.
1199: Richard the Lion-hearted is wounded and dies. His brother John (known as John Lackland) is crowned. Supporters of Arthur of Brittany (John's nephew, son of Henry II's second son Geoffrey) rebel. Philip II of France turns against John.