1202: Arthur of Brittany is defeated. Philip II of France continues Arthur's fight with England, and within the next three years increases his domain by annexing Normandy, Maine, Brittany, Anjou, Touraine, and Poitou. Start of the Fourth Crusade. (1202 - 1204) During which, Constantinople is captured (and plundered) by the Crusaders. Also, the Children's Crusade.
1203: Sundiata of Mali takes over rule of what remains of Ghana.(?)
1204: Philip II of France stops fighting England, after winning back all England's French lands. End of the Fourth Crusade. Eleanor of Aquitaine dies.
1206: By now Temujin (later known as Genghis Khan) is master of almost all of Mongolia.
1207: John Lackland of England refuses to accept Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. Pope Innocent III starts negotiating with Philip II of France to attack England, and closes down all the churches in England.
1208: Pope Innocent III proclaims a Crusade against the Albigenses (a religious sect) in Southern France. The crusade continues until about 1229. Philip, duke of Tuscany and Swabia is murdered, just as it looks like he will succeed as Holy Roman Emperor. Temujin (Genghis Khan) has started his conquest of China.
1209: Otto of Brunswick is crowned Otto IV of the Holy Roman Empire.
1210: Emperor Otto IV (called Otto of Brunswick) seizes papal territory and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
1212: Frederick, king of Sicily becomes Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Emperor Otto IV, with King John of England's support, continues to fight for his crown, against both Emperor Frederick II, the pope, and France.
1213: John Lackland of England surrenders England to the pope, and receives it back as a fief.
1214: John Lackland of England attempts to regain his lands in France and is defeated in France. Emperor Otto IV is defeated in the Battle of Bouvines, where France is established as a leading power of Europe. William the Lion of Scotland dies, and his son Alexander is crowned king.
1215: John Lackland of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta. A group of English barons offer Prince Louis (soon to be Louis VIII) of France the throne of England. He agrees and attempts to claim the throne but fails. Temujin (Genghis Khan) has conquered Yenking, the last Chin stronghold in Northern China.
1216: John Lackland of England dies defending his throne and is succeeded by his son Henry III (age nine) of England. During Henry III's minority the Earl of Pembroke ruled.
1217: Prince Louis VIII of France returns to France and takes parts in crusades against the Albigenses, or Cathars. Alexander II of Scotland recognizes Henry III of England as his overlord. The Fifth Crusade commences.
1218: Temujin (Genghis Khan) conquerors the Korean Peninsula.
1219: Earl of Pembroke dies. Hubert de Burgh takes over as regent of England. The Crusaders take the Egyptian seaport of Damiette, and plan on attacking Cairo. Genghis Khan turns west into Khoresm (Turkish Empire). Through conspiracy and murder the Hojo family becomes the military rulers of Japan. Although no Hojo ever became Shogun, they had the Emperor appoint figurehead Shoguns while they ruled as shikken, or regents
1220: The grid pattern of the streets of Salisbury, England, were laid out about this time.
1221: Alexander II of Scotland marries Henry III of England's sister Joan. After a failed attack on Cairo the Crusaders are forced to give up the Egyptian seaport of Damiette and return home.
1222: The Mongols under Genghis Khan head into Russia.
1223: Louis VIII of England succeeds his father as king of France.
1224: Emperor Frederick II founds the University of Naples.
1226: Louis IX succeeds his father as king of France (age 12), with his mother Blanche of Castile ruling as regent during his minority.
1227: Henry III of England comes of age. Under pressure from Pope Gregory IX, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II starts off on a Crusade. Within the first week the Emperor falls ill and is forced to cancel the crusade. Pope Gregory IX excommunicates him. Genghis Khan dies and his empire is divided among his three sons.
1228: Emperor Frederick II sets off on a Crusade (again). This time he makes it to the Holy Lands and through negotiations with the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil he succeeds in making peace and winning Jerusalem. Pope Gregory IX proclaims a crusade against Emperor Frederick II.
1229: Emperor Frederick II returns from the Holy Lands to defend himself from Pope Gregory IX's army.
1231: Constitution "Excommunicamus"of Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition.
1232: Henry III of England dismissed Hubert de Burgh from his court and rules with out the aid of ministers.
1236: Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence
1237: Peace of York establishes a boundary between England and Scotland. Emperor Frederick II's son Conrad IV elected King of the Romans. (1237 - 1240)The Tartars under Batu invade Russia.
1238: Alexander II of Scotland's wife Joan (brother of Henry III of England) dies. Sometime after Alexander II marries Mary of Coucy.
1241: Alexander II (of Scotland)'s wife Mary of Coucy gives birth to a son, who would later be Alexander III.
1244: The Muslims recapture Jerusalem.
1245: Pope Innocent IV deposes of Emperor Frederick II.
1246: The papal fraction in Germany elect Henry Raspe as Emperor.
1248: Louis IX of France joins the seventh crusade, his mother rules France as regent. Henry Raspe dies, and William of Holland is elected Emperor.
1249: Alexander II of Scotland dies on board a ship while trying to take the Hebrides from Norway. His seven year old son, Alexander III of Scotland becomes king. Louis IX of France and the crusaders capture the Egyptian seaport of Damiette.
1250: Louis IX of France and his forces are captured in Egypt, while trying to attack Cairo. After paying a large ransom and surrendering Damiette Louis IX sails to Palestine where he works on rebuilding the defenses of the Latin Kingdom. Emperor Frederick II dies. Both William of Holland and Ferderick II's son Conrad IV claim succession. By now there are about 4000 Christian Vikings in Greenland.
1251: Alexander III of Scotland (age ten) marries Margaret daughter of King Henry III of England.
1252: Pope Innocent IV officially sanctions the use of torture to obtain "truth" from suspects.
1254: Edward (called Longshanks, son of Henry III of England) marries Eleanor of Castile. Louis IX of France returns to France. Conrad IV (claimant to the title of Emperor) dies.
1257: Alfonso X, kind of Leon and Castile attempts to claim the Holy Roman Empire.
1258: Henry III of England is forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, by which he agrees to share his power with a council of barons. (He had wanted money from the barons.) Henry III soon went against the agreement, with the support of the Pope. The barons go to war. Louis IX of France signs the Treaty of Corbeil, relinquishing to the kingdom of Aragón all French claims to Barcelona and Roussillon, in return for which the Aragonese renounced their claims to parts of Provence and Languedoc. Baghdad is captured by the Mongols and the caliph is put in a sack and trampled to death.
1259: King Louis IX of France signs the Treaty of Paris with King Henry III of England.
1263: The Norsemen attempt to invade Scotland, but are prevented from succeeding by Alexander III of Scotland.
1264: A judgement called Mise of Amiens is passed by Louis IX, King of France, who is called into arbitrate between Henry III and the barons. The Mise of Amiens favors King Henry III, and the barons go to war. Henry III is taken prisoner.
1265: Henry III's son Edward (later Edward I, called Longshanks) leads the royal troops against the barons.
1266: Alexander III of Scotland makes peace with the Norsemen and marries the daughter of the King of Norway.
1267: Edward (called Longshanks) and the barons make peace, and Henry III is restored to the throne of England.
1270: Edward (called Longshanks) leaves for the eighth crusade. Louis IX of France leaves for the crusades but dies en route. His son, Philip III of France (called "The Bold", although he is a weak ruler) is crowned.
1271: Marco Polo of Venice travels to China, in court of Kublai Khan (1275–1292), returns to Genoa (1295) and writes "Travels".
1272: Henry III of England dies, and his son Edward I (called Longshanks) is recognized as king, although he is still away at the crusades.
1273: Edward I of England (called Longshanks) returns from the crusades and is crowned. Rodulf I of Habsburg is elected Holy Roman Emperor. Alfonso X protests Rodulf I's claim, but Pope Gregory X convinces Alfonso X to give up his own claim, in return for Rodulf renouncing his claims to Rome or the papal states.
1274: The Mongols attempt to invade Japan, but are defeated.
1275: Alexander III of Scotland's wife (daughter of the King of Norway) dies.
1278: With aid from Hungary, Holy Roman Emperor Rodulf I defeats his opponent Ottokar.
1281: The Mongols attempt to invade Japan, but are defeated.
1284: Edward I of England annexed Wales to England.
1285: Philip III of France fails an attempt at annexing the kingdom of Aragon. Philip III of France dies, and his son Philip IV of France (called The Fair) is crowned.
1286: Alexander III of Scotland dies falling from a cliff during a storm. His granddaughter Margaret "the Maid of Norway" succeeds him.
1290: Edward I of England (called Longshanks) expels all Jews from England. Margaret the Maid of Norway, and Queen of Scotland dies on her voyage to Scotland and thirteen men claim the throne. Edward I of England is called to choose between them, and he chooses the weak John Balliol, knowing that he could control him.
1291: Edward I of England is recognized as overlord of Scotland. Rudolf I of Hadsbury, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies. The electors elect Adolf of Nassau as king of Germany, and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, instead of Rudolf I's son Albert I. The last of the crusaders are forced out of Egypt by the Mamluks, and the era of the Crusades comes to an end.
1293: War breaks out between England and France. Edward I of England loses Gascony. The Welsh rebel against England.
1294: Between 1294 and 1296, Philip IV of France (called The Fair) seizes Guienne (in southwest France) from Edward I of England.
1295: King Edward I of England summons the Model Parliament.
1296: Edward I of England (called Longshanks) invades Scotland and proclaims himself king. In the bull Clericis Laicos Pope Boniface VII forbids clergy from paying taxes to secular powers. Philip IV of France (called The Fair) retaliates by forbidding the export of coins.
1297: Philip IV of France (called The Fair) continues his fight with England, and with England's ally Flanders.
1298: Edward I of England (called Longshanks) invades Scotland again to attempt to crush a revolt. Albert I (son of Emperor Rudolf I) deposes of Emperor Adolf of Nassau and becomes Emperor.
1299: Edward I of England makes peace with France in a treaty that gives Flanders to France, and returns Guienne to England. Edward I of England marries Margret, the sister of the French King Philip III. Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace is defeated by Edward I of England. Robert the Bruce is one of the four regents of Scotland.